It is also known as idiopathic benign intracranial hypertension. It is a disorder of increased intracranial pressure of unknown origin. It is usually associated with obesity and overweight. Typical manifestations are headache and visual disturbance secondary to inflammation of the optic nerves. The presence of visual impairment (papilledema) requires urgent treatment to avoid optic atrophy. In general, diagnostic confirmation requires a recording of the intracranial pressure (at the brain or at the lumbar level). If medical treatment is not effective it will be necessary to implant a lumboperitoneal shunt or a ventriculoperitoneal shunt with the aid of neuronavigation (the ventricular size is usually small in these cases).