Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage

Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage is a neurosurgical emergency. The most common cause is a chronically increased blood pressure. In young people with no risk factors, an underlying cause such as cavernous angioma, arteriovenous malformation or cerebral aneurysm should always be ruled out.


Depending on the neurological status of the patient, a surgical evacuation may be necessary, specially in cases with superficial hematomas.


In cases with intraventricular hemorrhage and hydrocephalus an external ventricular drainage may be necessary.


In cases with deep hemorrhage, it may be necessary to insert a sensor to monitor the intracranial pressure. In cases with severe intracranial hypertension, decompressive craniectomy might be required.



Microsurgical treatment of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage

Brain biopsy with neuronavigation or stereotactic frame

Invasive monitoring of intracranial pressure

Programmable and non-programmable ventriculoperitoneal shunt

Decompressive craniectomy

Cranioplasty with computer-designed implants

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