Traumatic head injuries may cause the occurrence of brain injuries. The severity of a traumatic head injury is observed evaluating the level of consciousness of the patient after the injury. Those patients who present with coma require an urgent treatment due to the risk of death or severe sequelae. There are many head and brain injuries that may occur after a head trauma such as skull fracture, epidural hematoma, acute subdural hematoma, brain contusions, brain swelling (edema). The main risk after a head trauma is the occurrence of an increased intracranial pressure that can be life threatening. To reduce the intracranial pressure surgical evacuation of hematomas through a craniotomy may be necessary. Occasionally, medically-induced coma and invasive monitoring of intracranial pressure may also be necessary. In extreme cases where medical treatment is not effective, decompressive craniectomy might be performed.